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Smoking is a risk factor for anti-CCP antibodies only in rheumatoid arthritis patients who carry HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles
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  • Published on:
    Testing for gene-environment interaction
    • Karen H. Costenbader, Rheumatologist/Epidemiologist
    • Other Contributors:
      • Lori B. Chibnik, Lisa Mandl, Elizabeth W. Karlson

    Dear Editor,

    We read with interest the recent article “Smoking is a risk factor for anti-CCP antibodies only in RA patients that carry HLA-DRB1 Shared Epitope alleles” by Dr. Linn-Rasker and colleagues in Leiden.[1] The question of whether true gene-environment interaction exists between genotype (HLA-DRB1 shared epitope, SE) and an environmental exposure, cigarette smoking in this case, both of which are known to...

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    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.
  • Published on:
    No association of smoking with anti-CCP antibodies in RA after adjustment for rheumatoid factor
    • Derek L Mattey, Senior Scientist
    • Other Contributors:
      • David Hutchinson, Consultant Rheumatologist, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, UK

    Dear Editor,

    We were interested to read the article by Linn-Rasker and colleagues who report that smoking is a risk factor for anti-cyclic-citrullinated (anti-CCP) antibodies only in RA patients that carry HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles.[1] They claim that an interaction is found between tobacco exposure (TE) and carriage of the SE which leads to anti-CCP production in RA. They find a similar effect for pres...

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    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.