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The lung in the antiphospholipid syndrome
  1. G Espinosa1,
  2. R Cervera1,
  3. J Font1,
  4. R A Asherson2
  1. 1Department of Autoimmune Diseases, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  2. 2Rheumatic Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town School of Medicine and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr R Cervera, Servei de Malalties Autoimmunes, Hospital Clínic, Villarroel, 170. 08036 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain;


Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) may develop a broad spectrum of pulmonary disease. Pulmonary thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension are the most common complications, but microvascular pulmonary thrombosis, pulmonary capillaritis, and alveolar haemorrhage have also been reported. Clinicians should seriously consider these types of vascular injury when evaluating patients with APS who present with dyspnoea, fever, and infiltrates on chest radiography.

  • antiphospholipid syndrome
  • pulmonary embolism
  • adult respiratory distress
  • lung syndrome
  • aCL, anticardiolipin antibodies
  • aPL, antiphospholipid antibodies
  • APS, antiphospholipid syndrome
  • ARDS, adult respiratory distress syndrome
  • INR, international normalised ratio
  • LAC, lupus anticoagulant
  • SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus

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