Studies of disease outcomes have not produced an explanation or an intervention for the symptoms and complaints that some women have attributed to breast implants. Reviews of the literature have found no increased risk of specific systemic disease, and no treatment recommendations have emerged. However, similar symptoms in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, and other contexts have been considered to be stress or behaviourally mediated, and a number of promising behavioural interventions have been developed. Aetiological, research, and treatment implications may follow from the consideration of such symptoms within a behavioural medicine model that allows for the interaction of physical and psychological influences. In the case of implants, a mass somatisation model may also help to discern the potential effects of litigation and other social influences.
- breast implants
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