BACKGROUND Because serious adverse reactions to allopurinol have been related to a reduce creatinine clearance rate and prolonged half life of oxypurinol, it has been recommended that the dose should be adjusted according to the rate of creatinine clearance. However, in some patients with gout the dose is not sufficient to reduce serum levels of uric acid (⩽390 μmol/l) and to halt disease progression.
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of adverse reactions attributable to allopurinol in patients with primary gout according to dose and creatinine clearance rate.
METHODS Data on 120 patients with gout receiving allopurinol, in whom the starting dose was adjusted according to creatinine clearance rate and later increased in some patients to control the disease, were retrospectively reviewed. Two groups were compared: group A, 52 patients receiving creatinine clearance adjusted maintenance doses of allopurinol and group B, 68 patients receiving non-adjusted higher maintenance doses of allopurinol.
RESULTS During follow up 57% required higher allopurinol doses than those recommended according to their creatinine clearance rate. Only five (4%) of 120 consecutive patients developed allopurinol related adverse reactions: four minor skin reactions and one allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS). Three of these (including the case of AHS) occurred in group A and two in group B (p=NS). The duration of allopurinol treatment was the same in both groups (group A: 2.3 (3.3) years; group B: 3.7 (4.8) years). No patient in group A, but 44% in group B had a creatinine clearance rate of <50 ml/min. None of the patients received concomitant diuretics, ampicillin, or azathioprine.
CONCLUSIONS No increase was seen in the prevalence of adverse reactions to allopurinol in patients who received higher allopurinol maintenance doses than those recommended according to creatinine clearance rate.
- renal failure
- adverse reactions
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