Two cases of acute monarthritis secondary to asymptomatic renal cell carcinoma are described. This association has not previously been reported. The patients were initially thought to have a septic arthritis, but hot spots were seen on isotope bone scans and biopsy samples showed secondary neoplasms, which were later confirmed to be a result of renal cell carcinomas. The value of cytological examination of synovial fluid when there is clinical doubt as to the cause of a joint effusion is shown.
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