The clinical and autopsy records of 65 patients with either polymyositis (24) or dermatomyositis (41) and pulmonary disease were reviewed. Pulmonary symptoms were recorded in 43 of the cases and included dyspnoea in 31, cough in 23, and chest pain in six. Interstitial lung disease was noted at autopsy in 27 patients; almost half of these had arthritis. Bronchopneumonia was found in 35 patients, 31 of these had received prednisone. Dysphagia was present in a similar proportion of patients with and without pneumonia. Pulmonary vasculitis was seen in five patients; pulmonary symptoms, arthritis, and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate were present in four of these cases and all five had associated interstitial lung disease. Other pulmonary manifestations included pulmonary oedema, primary pulmonary malignancy, diffuse alveolar damage, fibrinous pleuritis, pulmonary emboli, and diaphragmatic atrophy. The mean survival after disease onset was 29 months but was much less for those with interstitial lung disease and pulmonary vasculitis.
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