Spontaneous pneumomediastinum has not been reported in adult polymyositis or dermatomyositis, either in conjunction with spontaneous pneumothorax or in isolation. Spontaneous pneumothorax has been rarely reported as a complication of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and childhood dermatomyositis. It is associated with active, progressive pulmonary involvement and a poor prognosis. We describe an adult with dermatomyositis and spontaneous pneumomediastinum with a favourable outcome.
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