Table 2

Demographics and clinical characteristics at start of second bDMARD therapy, among Swedish patients with RA switching from TNFi 2011–2015

TNFiRituximabMean difference versus TNFi (95% CI)AbataceptMean difference versus TNFi (95% CI)TocilizumabMean difference versus TNFi (95% CI)
Patients, n1846376292315
Demographics
 Age , mean (SD)55.1 (14.4)60.3 (12.3)5.1 (3.6 to 6.5)58.7 (13.3)3.7 (2.0 to 5.4)56.6 (13.8)1.6 (−0.0 to 3.2)
 Female, n(%)1408 (76.3)270 (71.8)−2.6 (−7.6 to 2.5)233 (79.8)5.0 (−0.0 to 9.9)241 (76.5)1.0 (−3.8 to 5.8)
Highest education, n (%)
  9 years or less318 (21.7)82 (26.5)1.2 (−4.0 to 6.3)57 (26.1)2.3 (−4.1 to 8.1)70 (27.5)4.1 (−1.8 to 10.0)
  10 to 12 years705 (48.1)156 (50.3)2.9 (−3.5 to 8.9)111 (50.9)4.1 (−3.1 to 11.3)110 (43.1)−4.1 (−10.6 to 2.3)
 >12 years443 (30.2)72 (23.2)−4.1 (−9.2 to 1.2)50 (22.9)−6.4 (−12.0 to −0.4)75 (29.4)0.1 (−6.0 to 6.2)
Country of birth, n (%)
  Sweden145 (7.9)28 (7.4)−1.8 (−5.6 to 2.0)31 (10.6)−4.0 (−8.7 to 0.6)35 (11.1)−2.3 (−6.5 to 2.1)
  Scandinavia90 (4.9)24 (6.4)0.5 (−2.2 to 3.2)15 (5.1)0.2 (−2.5 to 2.8)11 (3.5)−1.2 (−3.6 to 1.1)
  Other1611 (87.3)324 (86.2)1.3 (−1.8 to 4.1)246 (84.2)3.8 (0.1 to 7.4)269 (85.4)3.5 (−0.5 to 7.1)
Medical history
 Days hospitalised last 5 years, mean (SD)6.9 (14.7)11.0 (20.7)3.1 (0.7 to 5.3)8.8 (18.3)1.5 (−0.8 to 3.5)9.9 (19.4)2.3 (0.0 to 4.4)
 Days of work loss last 5 years, mean (SD)478.6 (623.9)615.1 (723.0)183.0 (103.1 to 264.7)564.2 (661.3)20.4 (−76.8 to 118.1)486.0 (667.6)−46.3 (−144.5 to 43.7)
 Healthcare costs last 5 years, TSEK, mean (SD)319.2 (256.8)370.6 (283.4)30.8 (−1.6 to 61.3)354.8 (269.0)11.3 (−20.6 to 42.9)339.1 (274.5)12.0 (−20.7 to 43.8)
RA-related characteristics
 Rheumatoid factor positive, n (%)1333 (75.1)334 (90.8)14.2 (10.7 to 17.9)221 (77.0)0.6 (−4.8 to 6.1)237 (78.0)1.9 (−3.3 to 7.2)
 Disease duration, years, mean (SD)12.0 (10.6)13.9 (11.4)0.5 (−0.8 to 1.7)12.8 (11.4)−0.3 (−1.6 to 1.0)10.8 (10.8)−1.7 (−3.0 to −0.5)
 HAQ, mean (SD)1.05 (0.63)1.20 (0.63)0.11 (0.03 to 0.18)1.21 (0.67)0.12 (0.03 to 0.22)1.17 (0.64)0.09 (0.01 to 0.18)
 DAS28, mean (SD)4.37 (1.37)4.88 (1.22)0.44 (0.28 to 0.61)4.82 (1.30)0.38 (0.19 to 0.57)5.03 (1.38)0.64 (0.45 to 0.82)
 Tender joints, 0–28, mean (SD)5.6 (5.2)6.3 (5.5)0.8 (0.1 to 1.4)6.5 (5.4)0.7 (−0.0 to 1.5)7.5 (6.7)1.8 (1.0 to 2.6)
 Swollen joints, 0–28, mean (SD)4.7 (4.5)5.6 (4.9)0.9 (0.3 to 1.5)5.1 (4.1)0.3 (−0.3 to 0.8)6.2 (5.3)1.5 (0.8 to 2.1)
 Global health, mean (SD)53.6 (24.9)56.7 (24.4)2.9 (−0.2 to 5.9)58.9 (24.2)4.9 (1.5 to 8.4)59.2 (25.1)5.0 (1.6 to 8.3)
 ESR, mean (SD)24.5 (21.4)33.8 (25.1)7.2 (4.1 to 10.2)29.9 (22.3)4.0 (0.9 to 6.9)33.9 (25.5)9.2 (6.0 to 12.4)
 CRP, mean (SD)14.7 (22.1)21.4 (25.8)5.7 (2.6 to 8.7)18.5 (25.0)3.5 (−0.0 to 6.8)24.5 (29.1)9.4 (6.1 to 12.9)
 VAS pain, mean (SD)53.8 (25.4)56.1 (25.3)2.1 (−1.2 to 5.2)59.3 (24.1)4.9 (1.5 to 8.3)59.8 (25.0)5.3 (1.8 to 8.5)
 Conc. use of MTX, n (%)1343 (72.8)292 (77.7)4.9 (0.4 to 9.6)220 (75.3)4.1 (−1.2 to 9.8)232 (73.7)1.2 (−4.1 to 6.5)
 Conc. use of non-MTX csDMARD, n (%)409 (22.2)90 (23.9)2.0 (−2.9 to 6.3)58 (19.9)−1.8 (−7.0 to 3.3)51 (16.2)−5.5 (−10.1 to −0.8)
 Conc. use of oral steroids, n (%)1106 (59.9)252 (67.0)7.4 (2.2 to 12.4)207 (70.9)10.5 (4.7 to 16.5)207 (65.7)7.0 (1.0 to 12.9)
 Conc. use of NSAIDs, n (%)852 (46.2)166 (44.1)−0.1 (−5.7 to 5.4)115 (39.4)−4.6 (−10.9 to 1.4)145 (46.0)0.6 (−5.2 to 6.3)
Reason for switch, n (%)
 Adverse event374 (20.6)72 (19.5)−1.5 (−6.0 to 3.0)67 (23.8)3.1 (−2.3 to 8.3)49 (15.8)−5.8 (−10.6 to −1.4)
 Lack of effect1170 (64.4)235 (63.7)−0.1 (−5.7 to 5.4)165 (58.7)−6.4 (−12.9 to 0.3)235 (75.6)10.9 (5.4 to 16.3)
 Other272 (15.0)62 (16.8)1.6 (−2.9 to 5.7)49 (17.4)3.4 (−1.6 to 8.1)27 (8.7)−5.1 (−8.6 to −1.7)
  • Mean differences are compared with TNFi in multivariable linear regression adjusted for age, sex and geographical region with bootstrapped CIs.

  • bDMARD, biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TNFi, tumour necrosis factor inhibitor.