Patients with regular physical activity before onset of rheumatoid arthritis present with milder disease
- Maria E C Sandberg1,
- Sara Wedrén1,2,
- Lars Klareskog2,
- Ingrid E Lundberg2,
- Christina H Opava3,
- Lars Alfredsson1,4,
- Saedis Saevarsdottir1,2
- 1Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
- 2Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet/Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
- 3Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
- 4Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden
- Correspondence to Dr Maria E C Sandberg, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Box 210, Stockholm 171 71, Sweden;
- Received 3 January 2014
- Revised 24 February 2014
- Accepted 1 March 2014
- Published Online First 18 March 2014
Objectives Physical activity has been shown to decrease inflammatory markers; here we investigate the effect on the clinical presentation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods We used the cases from the population-based EIRA study (N=617), followed in the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register, calculating the odds of having above median level of 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28), physician assessment, pain (visual-analogue scale (VAS), VAS-pain) and activity limitation (health assessment questionnaire (HAQ)) at diagnosis, as an effect of physical activity 5 years before diagnosis, investigated both in categories and dichotomised.
Results Dose–response relationships were seen for all measures; the higher the level of physical activity, the lower the likelihood of having outcome measure above median. Further, regular physical activity associated with 42% reduced odds of having DAS28 above median (OR=0.58 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.81)). Effects were similar for VAS-pain (OR=0.62 (95%CI 0.45 to 0.86)) and physician assessment (OR=0.67 (95%CI 0.47 to 0.95)) but not for HAQ. Statistically significant effects were also found both for the combined objective components and the combined subjective components of DAS28.
Conclusions Physically active individuals seem to present with milder RA, which adds to the evidence of beneficial effects of physical activity on inflammatory diseases. The observation should be important for both health professionals and individuals seeking to reduce their risk.