Objective To investigate whether regulatory T cells (Treg) can control B cell function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and if not to explore the basis for this defect.
Methods Suppression of B cell responses by Treg was analysed in vitro by flow cytometry and ELISA using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 65 patients with RA and 41 sex-matched and aged-matched healthy volunteers. Blocking and agonistic antibodies were used to define the role of Fas-mediated apoptosis in B cell regulation.
Results Treg failed to restrain B cell activation, proinflammatory cytokine and antibody production in the presence of responder T cells in RA patients. This lack of suppression was not only caused by impaired Treg function but was also due to B cell resistance to regulation. In healthy donors, control by Treg was associated with increased B cell death and relied upon Fas-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, RA B cells had reduced Fas expression compared with their healthy counterparts and were resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis.
Conclusions These studies demonstrate that Treg are unable to limit B cell responses in RA. This appears to be primarily due to B cell resistance to suppression, but Treg defects also contribute to this failure of regulation. Our data identify the Fas pathway as a novel target for Treg-mediated suppression of B cells and highlight a potential therapeutic approach to restore control of B cells by Treg in RA patients.
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- B cells
- T Cells