Objective The aim of the study was to characterise the expression, regulation and pathogenic role of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods Expression of TLR7 and TLR8 was demonstrated in RA, osteoarthritis (OA) and normal (NL) synovial tissues (STs) employing immunohistochemistry. The authors next examined the mechanism by which TLR7 and TLR8 ligation mediates proinflammatory response by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Expression of TLR7 and TLR8 in RA monocytes was correlated to disease activity score (DAS28) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) levels. Further, the effect of TLR7 ligation in RA monocytes was determined on synovial fluid (SF)-mediated TNFα transcription.
Results TLR7/8 are predominately expressed in RA ST lining and sublining macrophages. The authors show that NF-κB and/or PI3K pathways are essential for TLR7/8 induction of proinflammatory factors in RA peripheral blood (PB)-differentiated macrophages. Expression of TLR7 in RA monocytes shows a strong correlation with DAS28 and TNFα levels. By contrast, expression of TLR8 in these cells does not correlate with DAS28, TLR7 or TNFα levels. The authors further demonstrate that RNA from RA SF, but not RA or NL plasma, could modulate TNFα transcription from RA monocytes that can be downregulated by antagonising TLR7 ligation or degradation of single stand (ss) RNA. Thus, ssRNA present in RA SF may function as a potential endogenous ligand for TLR7.
Conclusions These results suggest that expression of TLR7, but not TLR8, may be a predictor for RA disease activity and anti-TNFα responsiveness, and targeting TLR7 may suppress chronic progression of RA.
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Funding This work was supported in part by awards from the National Institutes of Health (AR056099, AR055240), Arthritis National Research Foundation, grants from Within Our Reach from The American College of Rheumatology and funding provided by Department of Defense PR093477.
Competing interests None.
Patient consent was obtained.
Ethics appproval Ethics approval was provided by the local ethical committees.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement All data available for this paper is included in the manuscript, therefore, there is no additional data available.