Background Systemic lupus erythrematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a myriad of manifestations, that could vary among different ethnic and racial groups.
Objectives To study the prevalence of various manifestations of SLE in an Egyptian population.
Methods Information in this study was derived from the medical records of SLE patients who followed up in a private clinic in Cairo from January 1980 to June 2016.
Results This descriptive retrospective case series included 1109 juvenile (19.4%) and adult (80.6%) patients, of which 114 (10.3%) were males and 995 were females (89.7%). Age of onset showed a mean of 26±11.19 years, and the mean of disease duration was 48.78±58.46 months (median: 26 years). The most common manifestations were synovitis (76.7%), malar rash (48.5%), leukopenia (45.7%), and photosensitivity (45.6%). At least one of the antiphospholipid antibodies was present in 41.8% of the patients tested for APL (636 patients). However thromboembolic manifestations and/or recurrent fetal loss occured in 11.5% of the patients. Neuropsychiatric manifestations were evident only in 6.4% of the patients, with seizures being the most common neuropsychiatric manifestation, present in 4% of the patients. 33.1% of the patients had nephritis, which followed the onset of the disease by a mean duration of 20±21.3 months (median=12 months). There were gender differences in the disease characteristics. Cutaneous vasculitis, nephritis, and hypocomplementemia were statistically higher in males (p=0.012, p=0.01, and p=0.041 respectively). Whereas, synovitis, and alopecia were statistically higher in females (p=0.012 and p=0.006 respectively). Patients with juvenile onset had a statisticaly higher frequency of nephritis (0=0.01), seizures (p=0.012) haemolytic anemia (p=0.001), and hypocomplementinemia (p=0.02).
Conclusions Synovitis and malar rash were the most common manifestations in our study. Secondary antiphospholipid was present in 11.5% of the patients. Male patients and juvenile patients showed a tendency towards a more severe disease.
Disclosure of Interest None declared