Background Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic inflammatory disorder classified as vasculitis, which can affect all types of vessels. The prevalence of vascular involvement has been reported at rates ranging from 15 to 50%.
Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine the characteristics of vascular involvement in patients with BD.
Methods Six hundred and ninety-two patients with BD, who applied to the multidisciplinary BD policlinic between 2006–2016, were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnosis of vascular involvement was made on clinical signs, by Doppler ultrasonography and/or angiography using computed tomographic or magnetic resonance techniques where appropriate.
Results One hundred and seventy-six patients (%25.4) had vascular involvement. The mean age of patients with vascular involvement (n=176) and non-vascular involvement (n=516) was similar to 42.5±12.3 and 42.2±12.2 years, respectively, while male sex frequency was significantly higher in patients with vascular involvement (72% to %42, p<0.001). Uveitis (45%) and erythema nodosum (EN) (47.7%) were significantly higher in patients with vascular involvement than those without vascular involvement (for Uveitis OR: 1.7, p=0.003/for EN: OR: 2.5, p<0.001) (Table 1). Deep vein thrombosis was detected in 142 (80.7%) of the patients with vascular involvement and this was the most common type of vascular involvement (Table 2). Arterial involvement was detected in 52 (29.5%) of 176 patients with vascular involvement. Deep venous thrombosis alone was present in 125 (71%) patients, arterial involvement alone in 12 (6.8%) patients, arterial and venous involvement together detected in 40 (22.7%) patients. Arterial involvement was most commonly seen as pulmonary artery involvement in 45 (25.6%) patients [pulmonary artery thrombosis 35 (20%), aneurysm 10 (5.7%) and thrombosis + aneurysm 6 (3.4%) patients]. Twenty (11.3%) patients had other arterial involvement except pulmonary, 8 of them had thrombosis and 12 had aneurysm.
Conclusions Vascular involvement in Behçet's disease is commonly seen in males. Deep vein thrombosis is the most common form of vascular involvement. Arterial involvement is important because of its higher risk of mortality (especially pulmonary artery aneurysm). The incidence of EN and uveitis is higher in patients with vascular involvement.
Disclosure of Interest None declared