Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) are common chronic inflammatory diseases with remarkable pathological and clinical similarities.A lot of similarities exist between RA and PD at cellular and molecular levels.
Objectives To analyse the PD incidence among RA patients, measure the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6)in their serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and to investigate their relationship.
Methods The experimental group was composed of 350 patients with RA and the control group consisted of 426 age and gender matched healthy individuals,check and record periodontal condition by dentist,analyse the PD incidence of the two groups,then select 64 PD patients without systematic diseases and 47 PD patients with a stable condition of RA,Detect and compare their periodontal status and the level s of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in their serum and GCF.
Results The percentage of PD was 67.7%,which was statistically significant higher than control group (43.6%) (P<0.001). The periodontal disease index (PDI),Probing depth (PD)and Clinical attachment loss (CAL) in patients with PD and RA are all significantly higher than those with simple PD (P<0.05). But the bleeding on probing (BOP) in the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Meanwhile, the level of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum and GCF are significantly higher in all PD patients than oral healthy individuals (P<0.01).Although those inflammatory mediators in serum are much higher in patients with PD and RA than in those with simple PD (P<0.01), there is no difference in the two group about those inflammatory mediators in GCF. The serum level of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 in patients with PD and RA are positively correlated with the corresponding inflammatory mediators in their GCF (r value was 0.531,0.422 and 0.770 respectively,p<0.01).
Conclusions Individuals with RA are more likely to experience periodontitis compares to healthy subjects, and the periodontitis is much more serious in patients with RA and PD than those with simple PD. the serum and GCF inflammatory factors' level increased significantly in patients with RA and PD,even during their RA stable period. The serum level of inflammatory factors in patients with PD and RA are positively correlated with the corresponding inflammatory mediators in their GCF. There is correlation between periodontitis and RA,and they may be the risk factors for eachother, the improvement of the periodontal status in patients with RA and PD may help to control systemic inflammation level and to make comprehensive treatment measure for RA patients.
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Disclosure of Interest None declared