Background Stress and depression are common in patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP). There is little research on long term patterns of depression and stress or how these variables relate to disease activity, disability and pain.
Objectives To describe the natural history of stress and depression over five years and to assess the association of baseline, one year prior and current disease activity, disability and pain with longitudinal stress and depression.
Methods Patients recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) (inclusion criteria: ≥2 swollen joints for ≥4 weeks) from 2005–2008 were included in this analysis. Demographics, medication use, 51 swollen/tender joint counts (SJC51/TJC51), pain visual analogue scale, HAQ, comorbidities and the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2) depression and stress subscales (range 0–10; high score = worse health status) were collected at baseline and years 1, 2, 3 and 5. Rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP2) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in baseline blood samples. ACR/EULAR 2010 RA criteria were applied to baseline characteristics. Depression and stress over five years were described using descriptive statistics. Multivariate random effects models were applied to assess the association of baseline disease activity (SJC51/TJC51), pain and disability with depression and stress over time adjusting for baseline age, gender, RF, anti-CCP2, CRP, sDMARD use, comorbidities, depression and stress. Similar methods were used to assess one year prior and current disease activity, pain and disability's association with stress and depression. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation.
Results 509 patients were included (median (IQR) age: 57 (45, 68) years; 321 (63.1%) female; 305 (59.9%) ACR/EULAR RA). Baseline median (IQR) depression and stress were 2.5 (1.5, 4.5) and 4.0 (2.5, 5.5) respectively and remained constant over five years. Baseline SJC51, TJC51, pain and HAQ were not independently associated with depression or stress over five years. Current HAQ and pain, but not SJC51/TJC51, were independently associated with depression and stress (per unit increase in HAQ: depression β 0.83, 95% CI 0.69, 0.97; stress β 0.76, 95% CI 0.61, 0.90; per 1cm increase in pain: depression β 0.09, 95% CI 0.06, 0.12; stress β 0.09, 95% CI 0.05, 0.12). Higher HAQ was independently associated with increased depression and stress one assessment later (per unit increase in HAQ: depression β 0.21, 95% CI 0.09, 0.32; stress β 0.21, 95% CI 0.10, 0.33) but not pain, SJC51 or TJC51.
Conclusions There were no associations between measures of disease activity and depression or stress. Prospectively higher HAQ scores were associated with worse psychological health a year later. This may have implications for holistic management of IP.
Disclosure of Interest None declared
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.