Background Chronic pain is a common condition that affects one-third of the population, accounting for a large number of medical consultations and a significant proportion of health care costs.
Evidence suggests that anxiety and depression are associated with increased pain sensitivity and pain-related disability, co-morbid states that are more disabling than either condition alone.
Likewise, sleep disorders have also been linked with chronic pain, and people who experience pain-related sleep disturbances are significantly more disabled than those who do not.
Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders, painful musculoskeletal conditions in a sample of adults with disabilities.
Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed data of 1692 adults aged 18 or older who have disabilities over 10 years (2005 to 2014). We examined the following chronic conditions, in which pain is a key symptom and forms part of the diagnosis, and organized them into 3 groups. Group 1 consisted of (rheumatic diseases), arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis; group 2 consisted of muscular dystrophy; and group 3 consisted of neck or back pain;
The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of painful musculoskeletal conditions was determined according to the diagnosis. Factors associated with these painful conditions were analyzed separately for men and women by using a logistic regression model.
Results The prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions was 66.9% (95% CI, 66%–67.5%). Factors associated with these conditions in both men and women included older age, a sleep disorder, and concomitant chronic anxiety and/or depression was 23.5% (95% CI, 22.5%–24%), all of which were higher in women than in men. Of the 1692 adults with disability included in the study, 65% were women. The average age was 50.5 (standard deviation, 12.5 y), and 65% of participants were 50.5 or older. In addition, 48% of participants were married. Of the participants, 16% had been diagnosed with chronic anxiety and 22% with chronic depression; and 32% with sleep disorder (sleeping 6 hours or less per day. Prevalence of Painful Conditions in Adults with Disabilities, by Group of Conditions and by Sex, Differences between men and women were significant at P <.001 (for all groups of conditions, except muscular dystrophy.
Conclusions The prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions associated with depression, anxiety, and/or a sleep disorder, is high in people with disability, especially in women. To design plan for rehabilitation and improving the quality of life of adults with disability and painful conditions; treatments for depression, anxiety and/or sleep disorders should be considered in addition to conventional treatments.
Disclosure of Interest None declared