Background Autoimmune diseases share pathophysiological mechanisms, genetic factors and certain environmental triggers. Its frequency is reported up to 43% for poliautoimmunity and almost half of these have family autoimmunity, but this is unknown in our population.
Objectives To identify the prevalence of poliautoimmunity and family autoimmunity in a Rheumatology Service of a third level hospital in Mexico.
Methods Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Consecutive outpatients who attended the Rheumatology Service of the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara “Fray Antonio Alcalde” during 2 months were applied a questionnaire to obtain demographic data, autoimmunity and risk factors. Descriptive statistical analysis was done.
Results Of 1,208 patients, 484 (40%) had autoimmunity, of these 58 (12%) had polyautoimmunity and 6 (1%) with Multiple Autoimmune Syndrome (MAS). The most frequent of 35 autoimmune diseases registered were: RA 42%; SLE 17%; AS 6%; SSc 5%; SSj 4%; PsA 3%; JIA 3%; autoimmune hypothyroidism 3%; APS 2%; Dermatomyositis 2% and Psoriasis 1%. In the group with polyautoimmunity SLE was present in 26 (45%) patients, SSj in 13 (22%) and autoimmune thyroid disease in 14 (24%). In the MAS group autoimmune thyroid disease in 5 patients. Patients with polyautoimmunity developed first: SLE (14%) and RA (14%). In the patient with MAS autoimmune thyroid disease in 33%. Of the 58 patients with poliautoimmunity 31 (53%) have familial autoimmunity, of which SLE is the most frequent in (22%), followed by autoimmune thyroid disease (17%) and RA (16%). All 6 MAS patients had familial autoimmunity. Referent to risk factores: 154/484 reported active smoking. Of the 58 patients with poliautoimmunity, only 23 (40%) had or are current smokers. Of the 6 patients with MAS 50% presented this risk factor.158/484 (33%) patients had periodontal disease. In patients with autoimmune disease 54% were overweight (28%) or obese (26%). Of the 58 patients with poliautoimmunity 48% were overweight and 21% obese; of patients with MAS 50% were overweight or obese. Only one patient had ASIA syndrome with GCA diagnosed.
Conclusions The search of polyautoimmunity is required in all patients with autoimmune disease and convenient to consider that these patients will have a higher frequency for familial autoimmunity. Smoking and periodontal disease are widely known risk factors that are no taken serious by patients.
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Disclosure of Interest None declared