Background Few data are available on the characteristics of gout in sub-Saharan Africa (1).
Objectives We performed this study with the aim to present the clinical, laboratory and imaging characteristics of gout at the time of diagnosis in Cameroon.
The results obtained will be compared with data from the Western literature.
Methods We performed a cross-sectional study among the 10,186 out patients seen at the Rheumatology unit of Douala General Hospital, Douala, Cameroon, between 2004 and 2014. We included patients with gout diagnosis (ACR criteria 1977). The main socio-demographic and clinical data on gout at the time of diagnosis were collected.
A p<0.05 was significant.
Results We included 511 patients (5.02%) including 415 men and 96 women. The mean age was 55.9±10.8 years.
Joint pain (n=508, 99.4%), joint effusion (n=198, 38.7%) and fever (n=20, 3.9%) were the main reasons for consultation at diagnosis. Knees (n=300, 62.6), ankles (n=187, 39.0%) and MTP1 joints (n=128, 26.7%) were the most affected joints. Tophi were mainly located at the elbows (n=72, 66.0%), MTP1 (n=20, 18.3%), and ears (n=18, 16.5%) [Table 1].
Gout was as acute (n=255, 49.9%) as it was chronic (n=256, 50.1%). The clinical presentation was oligoarticular in 195 patients (38.7%), monoarticular in 172 patients (34.1%), and polyarticular in 137 patients (27.2%).
The mean uric acid level was 82.4±22.3 mg/L, with hyperuricemia found in 401 patients (78.4%). Elevated acute phase reactants was present in 81.9% of patients. Structural involvements related to gout were present in 181 (74.8%) of the 241 patients who had performed an X-ray.
Comorbidities were present in 344 patients (67.3%), hypertension (n=208, 40.7%), obesity (n=151, 29.5%), osteoarthritis (n=111, 21.7%), oesogastroduodenal complaints (n=74, 14.5%), diabetes (n=52, 10.2%), and chronic kidney diseases (n=42.8.2%).
Associated factors (p<0.05) in the occurrence of gout were obesity, alcohol intake, diuretics intake, and menopause (in women).
Conclusions Gout has the same clinical, laboratory and imaging characteristics in Cameroon than in Western countries. The main difference comes from the place of the knee as the main joint involved by gouty arthritis at the time of diagnosis in our study.
Usenbo A, et al. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 4;10(8):e0133858.
Disclosure of Interest None declared