Background Both periodontitis and osteoporosis have similar sign of bone resorption in nature and have multifactorial etiologic factors, although the mediator factors or mechanism may be different. How to prevent and treat these two bone-loss diseases is always an important issue in public health. However, the relationship of them is still uncertain.
Objectives The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between periodentitis and osteoporosis.
Methods Tunisian women aged from 30 to 60 years, who consulted the Rheumatology department of Fattouma Bourguiba university hospital between Febrary to December 2017. The measure the bone mineral density (BMD) using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), were recruited to participate in this case-control study. Among the 60 women selected, 30 were diagnosed with osteoporosis or osteopenia (T-score< -1; cases) and 30 with normal T-score (T-score> -1; controls). The oral examination was done by a dentist in the stomatology department in the same hospital.
Results The mean age of patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia was 58.61±8.11 [51–81 and 56.07±9.72 [40–76] in the control group.the mean bone miniral density (BMD)in vertebral site was 0.856±0.090g/cm2 and 1.216±0.185g/cm2 in control group. In femoral site, it was 0.877±0.221g/cm2 and 1.061±0.142g/cm2 respectively. The mean T-score in vertebral site was -2.387±0.814 DS in osteoporosis/ osteopenia group and 0.643±1.587 DS in control group. In femoral site, it was -1.577±0.970 DS and 0.213±1.162 respectively.The oral examination showed an excessive tooth mobility in 60% and 36.7% of controls without a significant difference, a gingival recession in 50% and 30% of controls, the presence of periodontal pockets in 23.3% and 16.7% of controls without a significant difference, a plaque index ≥2 in 53,3% of osteoporosis/osteopenia patients and 63,3% of controls and a non rectilinear trajectory of mouth opening in 13,3% and 3,3% of controls.
Conclusions Our study showed that patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia have a poor oral hygiene, but without significant difference with control group.However, patients who were diagnosed as osteoporosis must pay more attention to their periodontal health. Good oral hygiene maintenance might be a crucial factor for preventing the deterioration of osteoporosis progressing.
Yi-Fang Huang et al, The Impact of Oral Hygiene Maintenance on the Association Between Periodontitis and Osteoporosis; Medicine; Volume 95, Number 6, February 2016.
Reddy MS. Osteoporosis and periodontitis: discussion, conclusions, and recommendations. Ann Periodontol. 2001;6:214–217.
Disclosure of Interest None declared