Background The Sjögren syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease where the cellular and humoral mechanisms affect the exocrine glands. In 2016, new classification criteria validated by ACR and EULAR were established.
Objectives To compare the new criteria with those used so far in our hospital, as well as to assess the need for changes in the current diagnostic strategy.
Methods Retrospective observational study in which 65 patients diagnosed with SS at the Hospital of Leόn were randomly included. We reviewed the diagnostic tests performed and the fulfilment of the different classification criteria developed since 1993. Other variables studied were: sex; age at the time of diagnosis and the months from the onset of symptoms; xerostomia and xerophthalmia; extraglandular involvement, ESSDAI; immunosuppression; Raynaud; lymphoma development; and analytical alterations.
Results The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 54.9 years ±14 | 23–82 |, with an average of months from the onset of symptoms to the diagnosis of 10.2±9.5 | 0–36|. 90.8% were women. 87.7% presented xerostomia; and 91% showed xerophthalmia, being severe in 43.1%. 64.6% had extraglandular manifestations; being the most prevalent the joint manifestation (60%) and the cutaneous one (18.4%). Over the past year, 37% developed haematological alterations in the form of cytopenias, and 73% biological alterations. At the time of the study, 32.8% presented low activity, 38.5% moderate activity and 9.2% high activity, measured by ESSDAI; being higher in anti-Ro positive patients (p=0.011). There was no association between ESSDAI and other antibodies, Raynaud or severe ocular involvement. 10.8% required systemic immunosuppression (RTX 5, AZA 2) and 18.5% needed ocular immunosuppression (topical cyclosporine). Only one patient developed lymphoma.
A Schirmer's test (ST) was performed in 92.3% (positive in 89.2%), saving the Van Bijsterveld test for patients with severe ocular involvement. The Ocular Staining Score (OSS) was not performed in any patient.
The scintigraphy of the salivary glands was positive in 70.8% of the patients and was not performed in 21.5%. The parotid sialography was only performed in two patients and the study of the salivary flow was not stimulated in none of them.
Regarding the autoimmunity, 80% presented positive antiRo; 61.5% antiLa; 89% ANA; 61.5% RF; 43% quadruple positivity.
Labial gland biopsy was performed only in 18.4%, with a positive result in 75%.
All patients met the 1993 European Criteria; 86.2% met the European-American criteria of 2002; and only 10.8% met the SICCA-ACR Criteria. The new criteria validated by ACR and EULAR were verified in 80%. Four patients who fulfilled the European criteria did not meet the new criteria, coinciding with those patients with negative ST, but positive scintigraphy.
Conclusions In our hospital, the method for electing the xerostomia study was the salivary scintigraphy; therefore, we cannot establish direct comparisons with the new criteria.
The incorporation of non-stimulated salivary flow in our diagnostic strategy is necessary.
We should consider conducting a lip biopsy more systematically for histological confirmation since there are no validated diagnostic criteria.
Disclosure of Interest None declared