Background APS more often overlaps with other systemic autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than occur as a distinct disease. Our purpose was to evaluate what are the differences between patients with primary APS and APS accompanying SLE.
Objectives The objective of this study was to compare patients with primary APS and APS/SLE group whther we can find find any clinical or laboratory parameters that can distinguish them from each other.
Methods 112 patients with APS were included to the study, 57 of them with primary APS and 55 with coexisting SLE. These patients were followed at the Department of Connective Tissue Diseases, NIGRiR, Warsaw, Poland. At inclusion a full medical history and physical examination data were recorded.
Results Both groups were similar in age, gender and duration of disease. Among all the clinical manifestations of APS, venous thrombosis was more frequent in patients with concomitant SLE. Skin involvement was significantly more prevalent in primary APS and it was caused mainly by livedo reticularis presence. From neurological manifestations, the occurrence of epilepsy was comparable, when EEG changes were more frequent in APS/SLE group. From laboratory measures, leucopenia, low complement concentrations and proteinuria were more prevalent in APS/SLE group. No differences were observed in thrombocytopenia and elongation of APTT as well as antiphospholipid antibody profile.
Conclusions In conclusion, arterial thrombosis is more characteristic for primary APS. We found that livedo reticularis is very characteristic feature for primary APS. Although epilepsy occurrence is comparable in APS and APS/SLE, higher frequency of EEG changes in APS/SLE group suggests that the mechanisms leading to this feature can be distinct between this two conditions. Additionally, it appears to be more reasonable to add thrombocytopenia to clinical criteria of APS, because its frequency does not depend on SLE presence.
Disclosure of Interest None declared