Background Menopause is the time in woman's life when production of sex hormones ceases. Sex hormones deficiency leads to increasing bone fragility and, thus, fracture risk. Bone turnover and bone mass could be affected by too many other risk factors. Osteoporosis threatens the health and quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Objectives The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in Albanian postmenopause women and the role of risk factors in osteoporosis.
Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tirana city in a period 2009–2013, including a population-based sample of 4,789 women. All subjects enrolled in the study were asked for risk factors for osteoporosis by completing a specific questionnaire. Low bone mineral density (osteopenia defined as a bone mineral density T-score less than -1 and osteoporosis for T-score less than -2.5) was assessed with a bone ultrasound device which is simple and easy to use for screening of bone mineral density in population-based studies. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the relationship of osteoporosis and independent factors in this study population.
Results The prevalence of osteoporosis in this study population was 6.2% (N=286) and prevalence of osteopenia was 16.6%; 77.1% of osteoporosis women were in postmenopause. In logistic regression models was seen that menopausal women had 69% more chances than no menopausal women to have osteoporosis (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.45–1.77, P<0.001). Osteoporosis was positively associated with multiparity (P<0.001) and long treatment with glucocorticoids (OR: 1.52; CI95% 1.46–1.94; p=0.02). In multivariable analysis osteoporosis was positively associated with rheumatoid arthritis (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.47–1.81, P<0.001). In Kendal's correlation coeficient, osteoporosis was negatively associated with level of education (r=-0.101, p<0.001) and body mass index (r=-0.0033, p<0.009) and positively associated with white color of skin (r=0.003, p<0.027) and treatment with diuretics (r=0.007, p<0.001).
Conclusions This study offers useful evidence about the osteoporosis and osteopenia prevalence among postmenopausal albanian women. Caucasian females with early menopause, multiparous, lower body-weight, suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, long treated with glucocorticoids and diuretics and lower education should be followed-up more carefully for development of osteoporosis.
Disclosure of Interest None declared