Background Lung disease is the most common extra-articular location of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA).
Objectives This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for lung disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Methods A cross-sectional study of 72 patients fulfilling RA ACR/EULAR criteria was conducted over one year. Epidemiological data and RA parameters were collected. Pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were performed. Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS 20 Software. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results Means of age and disease duration were 51.39± 12.40 and 11.76±8.17 years respectively. Smoking was active and passive in 8.3% and 9.7% of cases respectively. RA was seropositive in 70% of cases. Means of DAS28, HAQ, Scharp were 4.59±1.80, 1.19 ±0.96 and 71, 05±43.62 respectively. 58.82% of patients were under Methotrexate, 18.1% under Salazopyrine and 81.9% under prednisone. Only 29.2% were symptomatic on the respiratory level. 12.5% had abnormal physical examination. Chest radiography showed abnormalities in 46% and pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 47% of cases. 55.3% of patients had a lung disease confirmed by HRCT and dominated by interstitial disease (19.4%). RA respiratory functional signs were statistically related to the duration time and positive ACPA. Abnormal HRCT was significantly related to age (p=0.01), activity by DAS 28 (p=0.02) and VS (0.04), severity by RF rate (p=0.04) and HAQ (p=0.01). On multivariate analysis, interstitial disease, rheumatoid nodules, emphysema and pleurisy were respectively associated with smoking, sex, respiratory functional signs and age greater than 40 years.
Conclusions Respiratory disease affects one in two patients in our RA population. It would be related to age and female gender, but also smoking, activity and severity that we should control.
Disclosure of Interest None declared