Background Evidence suggests that levels of different cytokines in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are associated with cell infiltration degree within lacrimal and salivary glands and severity of the disease. Chemokines appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of pSS.
Objectives To evaluate the association between serum and tear Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and chemokines leves and disease activity in patients with pSS.
Methods Case-control study, 19 patients with pSS and 13 healthy controls were included. Disease activity was assessed by EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI); serum and tear IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IP10, MCP-1, MIG, RANTES and IL-8 levels were measured by bead-based assays following the sandwich immunoassay principle (BD Cytometric Bead Array; BD Biosciences). Differences between groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, correlation was estimated by Spearman's correlation coefficient.
Results TNF, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IP-10, MCP-1, RANTES and IL-8 tear levels were statistically different between controls and patients with pSS (p<0.005). Significant correlation (p<0.005) was showed in patients between serum IL-6 and serum IL-2 (r=0.652), IL-4 (r=0.731); serum IL-2 and serum IP-10 (r=0.640); serum IL-2 and tear IL-2 (r=0.614), IL-8 (r=0.723), IP-10 (r=0.795), MIG (r=0.755); serum IL-4 and tear IL-8 (r=0.696), MIG (r=0.707); serum IP-10 and serum MIG (r=0.847), RANTES (r=0.626); serum IP-10 and tear IP-10 (r=0.619); serum MIG and serum RANTES (r=0.719); serum MIG and tear IL-17 (r=0.619); serum RANTES and tear IL-2 (r=0.628), IL-4 (r=0.619), IL-6 (r=0.736), IL-8 (r=0.770), IP-10 (r=0.687), MCP-1 (r=0.566), MIG (r=0.740).
Conclusions Increased tear Th1/Th2 cytokines and chemokines levels were found in pSS. No correlation was found between serum or tear cytokines and chemokines levels and pSS disease activity.
Chen W, Cao H, Lin J, Olsen N, Zheng SG. Biomarkers for primary Sjögren syndrome. Genomics Proteomics Bioformatics 2015; 11:219–23
Coursey TG, de Paiva CS. Managing Sjögren's Syndrome and non-Sjögren Syndrome dry eye with anti-inflammatory therapy. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014; 8:1447–58.
Tincani A, Andreoli L, Cavazzana I. Novel aspects of Sjögren's Syndrome in 2012. Bio Med Central Medicine 2013;11:93
Lee SY, Han SJ, Nam SM, Yoon SC, Ahn JM, Kim TI et al. Analysis of tear cytokines and clinical correlations in Sjögren syndrome dry eye patients and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye patients. Am J Ophthalmol 2013; 156:247–253
Kang MH, Kim MK, Lee HJ, Lee HI, Wee WR, Lee JH. Interleukin-17 in various ocular surface inflammatory diseases. J Korean Med Sci 2011; 26:938–44
Disclosure of Interest None declared