Inflammasomes are multi-protein platforms that assemble in the cytosol of immune cells to cope with pathogens and cellular stress. The pattern-recognition receptors NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2 and Pyrin all assemble canonical platforms for caspase-1 activation, and the related inflammatory caspases 4, 5 and 11 respond to cytosolic detection of the Gram-negative lipopolysaccharides. Inflammasomes contributes importantly to controlling pathogen replication through their roles in maturation and secretion of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-(IL)1β and IL18, and they also induce pyroptosis. Contrasting to their beneficial roles in these host defense responses, deregulated inflammasome activation is thought to be detrimental in the context of chronic inflammatory arthritis and autoinflammatory diseases such as cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes (CAPS) and Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF).
Disclosure of Interest None declared