Background Salivary gland disorders include disorder of immune system, inflammatory, bacterial, viral, and neoplastic etiologies. Diagnosis is made by radiological examinations (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography) and biopsy of salivary glands. Minimally invasive biopsy, such as Fine-needle aspiration (FNA), are commonly used in the diagnosis of salivary gland disorders. Submucosal minor salivary gland biopsy should be done if the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome (SS) cannot be made by history and serologic testing. Fine-needle aspiration is widely applied in the preoperative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. Distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions and benign from malignant tumors of the salivary glands is extremely important for medical and surgical management of salivary gland disorders.
Aims The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of the literature to analyze the role and several aspects of minimally invasive biopsy of salivary gland disorders.
Methods A systematic bibliographic search of the medical literature between January 2011 and January 2016 was conducted using electronic databases of National Library of Medicine (Medline). The bibliographic search was carried out with combination of this medical subject heading terms and text words: salivary gland, biopsy, minimal invasive biopsy, histological findings and fine-needle aspiration. For the inclusion on this review, studies had to evaluate several aspect of biopsy of salivary glands. The authors to determine the eligibility on this study performed an independent review of the finding data.
Results The PubMed search identified 161 items. After a first evaluation, 57 full-text articles were finally selected for further evaluation. Of these 57 articles, 38 were excluded because they did not completely meet the inclusion criteria, whereas 19 were considered eligible for this review study.
Conclusions The advantages of minimally invasive biopsy of salivary glands include decreased tissue damage, no need for anesthesia, and repeated sampling when specimens are insufficient after immediate assessment at the examination site. A biopsy of salivary glands offers valuable information for planning of subsequent therapeutic management. Fine-needle aspiration is a safe diagnostic technique that has a high specificity and sensitivity for the assessment of salivary gland disorders. The sensitivity and specificity reported is high for infective, immunological and benign lesions, whereas it decreases in cases of malignant tumors for the great variety of morphological patterns found in malignant salivary gland tumors.
Disclosure of Interest None declared