Background Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 are produced in arthritis conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (Sandya, et al. 2009). Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17 and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are known to be elevated (Ademowa, et al. 2013), whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-10 (IL-10) are present in lower levels in many cases. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines determines the severity of arthritis. This is due to the pro-inflammatory cytokines initiating a sequence of events which ultimately leads to joint destruction (Ziolkowska, et al. 2000).
Objectives To compare the levels of MMP-2 and -9 found in blood and synovial fluid samples from arthritis patients to the levels in blood and synovial fluid samples obtained from healthy volunteers. To quantify key cytokines present in blood and synovial fluid. Using the results to then determine if a diagnosis can be made from the cytokine profile present in a healthy volunteer samples as compared to profiles from arthritis patients.
Methods This is a blind study and the recruited subjected (n=10) were divided into two groups: a group of healthy volunteers recruited from the Institute of Technology, Carlow and a group of patients with various arthropathies which are recruited from AutEven Hospital, Kilkenny. Gelatin zymography was carried out to determine the levels of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the samples and the results were analysed using Image J Software. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was also used to determine the levels of cytokines IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-17 in all the blood and synovial fluid specimens.
Results Pro-MMP-9 appeared to be elevated in the arthritis patient samples as compared to healthy volunteers. Pro-MMP-2 levels varied in both arthritis and healthy samples. The cytokine testing using ELISA kits is currently in progress so no results are obtained to date in this area.
Conclusions The gelatin zymography results suggest that pro-MMP-9 may be upregulated in arthritis patients reflecting the inflammatory state of these conditions. It is expected that the proinflammatory cytokines will be elevated in patients suffering from arthritis.
Ademowo, O.S., et al. (2013). Biomarkers of Inflammatory Arthritis and Proteomics. In: Stanilova, S., ed., Genes and Autoimmunity: Intracellular Signaling and Microbiome Contribution. InTech, pp.237-267.
Sandya, S., et al. (2009). Multiple Matrix Metalloproteinases in Type II Collagen Induced Arthritis. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 24 (1), pp. 42-48.
Ziolkowska, M., et al. (2000). High Levels of IL-17 in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: IL-15 Triggers In Vitro IL-17 Production Via Cyclosporin A-Sensitive Mechanism. The Journal of Immunology, 164 (5), pp. 2832-2838.
Acknowledgements The project is funded by the Presidents' fellowship Award at the Institute of Technology Carlow.
Disclosure of Interest None declared