Background Ultrasound examination has become increasingly important for determining pathological conditions in inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions of the joints. However, age characteristics of normal joints structure in children at the stages of growth and puberty remain unspecified.
Objectives To explore the dimensions of the basic structures of ultrasonic unchanged knee in adolescents.
Methods Sonograms (151 studies) of the knee in children 10-18 years without clinical manifestations of the pathology of the locomotors system (100 people, boys – 57, girls - 43) has selected for the analysis. Traumatic injuries, including changes in ligaments and menisci infringement structures and inflammation with accumulation of fluid in the joints bags (suprapattelaris, subcutaneous praepattelaris, in popliteal fossa in) has excluded according to history, clinical and laboratory examination. Ultrasound has performed on devices Siemens, Logiq P5 General and SLE-101 PS in real-time polypositional knee ultrasound diagnostics with a frequency radiation 7.5 - 12 MHz linear transducer. The following parameters were evaluated according to the methods and protocols knee joint research: state joint cavity, synovial membrane, articular cartilage, the size of the joint space in the lateral and medial parts of the joint, the contours of the articular surface of the femoral and tibial bone.
Results All teenagers have gradual decrease in the size of the articular cartilage at the stages of puberty. The greatest thickness cartilage is 10-year-olds (4,08±0,15 mm), and the beginning of puberty (11 years) it starts to decline in all areas of measurement (up to 2,60±0,20 mm) (P<0.05).
Measuring the thickness of the articular cartilage in adolescents found that girls in general this figure is smaller than in boys (P<0.05). Depending on the age, this pattern was detected in 10-, 13- and 15-year-olds, reflecting the uneven formation of cartilage in the two sexes is in these age periods.
A violation in the structure of cartilage and its surface has established. Articular cartilage and subchondral edge of bone looked like a thin, hyperechoic bands without defects and additional physical phenomena.
Measurement of ultrasonic joint space (distance between the medial and lateral femoral condyles and tibial bones) not established significant differences overall results among adolescents of both sexes at the stages of ontogeny when comparing them for years. It was less in the medial section of children under 14 (Pt <0.05) in some areas of measurement in girls 11, 13, 15 and 16 years (Pt <0.05) and 13-year-olds against 12 years old (P<0.05).
The size of the bag knee does not change depending on the age and sex. In most age groups, the figure was higher in males (P<0.05).
Conclusions Studies have established differences in the state of structural components of a healthy knee joint in different periods of adolescence and their dependence on sex. It must be considered during the ultrasound and detection of pathological abnormalities. The combination of anatomical, physiological and clinical data will rheumatologist practicing physicians to conclude that the presence of normal or abnormal structures of the joints is not only inflammatory nature, but dysplastic and dystrophic.
Disclosure of Interest None declared