Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease, affecting women in their reproductive period . SLE patients are at increased risk for multiple comorbidities including cardiovascular diseases, obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) . These comorbidities may be driven by related disease factors or medications exposure. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by presence of hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidaemia, and abdominal obesity .
Objectives The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of MetS and obesity in SLE patients. Also, to evaluate the association of demographic factors, disease activity, medications used and patients' body mass index (BMI) with presence of MetS.
Methods A total of 85 patients with SLE meeting four or more of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for SLE were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Patients' clinical and laboratory data and therapeutic exposures were collected. Disease activity was assessed using SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Presence of MetS (according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) was considered when patients met 3 or more of the definition criteria . Anthropometric measurements and BMI were calculated. Obesity defined as BMI more than 30 kg/m2.
Results Overall, 42.4% of our SLE patients had MetS. Patients with MetS were older age (P=0.011), had significant delayed age at diagnosis (P=0.008). Significant differences were noted between patients with and without MetS regarding the MetS parameters (P ≤0.002). 29.4% of our SLE patients were obese. BMI was significantly difference between patients with and without MetS (P=0.001). No significant differences were observed regarding SLE disease duration, therapeutic variables, or mean SLEDAI score. However, in SLEDAI score >10 there was significant association with MetS towards higher disease activity (P=0.050). Regarding laboratory features, only serum creatinine showed significant elevation (P=0.005) in patients with MetS.
Conclusions Metabolic syndrome is frequent among our SLE patients. Metabolic syndrome is associated with delayed age at diagnosis, obesity and serum creatinine. Within SLE patients with high disease activity, there is correlation between MetS and disease activity. Targeted metabolic syndrome management can alter disease staus in SLE.
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Disclosure of Interest None declared