Background Secondary macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a group of diseases, especially due to autoimmune (AI) and hemato-oncology (HO). It would be interesting to find any clinical and analytics data to differentiate both etiologies.
Objectives To describe and compare demographics, clinical and laboratories features and mortality of patients diagnosed with secondary MAS due to HO and AI diseases at the Donostia University Hospital.
Methods A cohort of patients diagnosed with MAS was studied by reviewing medical reports in the period Dec/2008-Jan/2015. We analyzed and compared only patients with AI and HO diseases. The variable studied were diagnosis, age, sex, fever, organomegaly, hospital and overall mortality, analytical findings, hospital stay, days from admission to diagnosis and days from diagnosis to the end of the study or death after discharge. Quantitative variables are shown with the median and interquartile range. For the bivariate analysis Wilcoxon and Chi square test were used. Median survival in months and Hazar Ratio (HR) was calculated with the Kaplan Meier plot.
Results Nineteen patients were found diagnosed with MAS, 6 and 9 were due to AI and HO diseases respectively. The AI diseases found were: 3 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, 2 Adult Still's Disease and 1 disease associated with IgG4. HO diseases found were: 3 acute myeloid leukemias, 2 B cells Not Hogkin Lymphoma (NHL), 1 T anb B cells NHL, 1 Natural Killers cells extranodal lymphoma, 1 myelodysplastic syndrome and 1 gastric plasmacytoma. The table shows the descriptive analysis of 19 patients and the bivariate analysis between AI and HO.
The median survival of HO diseases was 1.2 months and AI diseases can not be calculated. The mortality of HO and AI diseases was 77.8% and 16.7% respectively with a p=0.04 in the log rank test. The HR of mortality among HO against AI diseases was 6.84.
Conclusions In the present study the following differences were found: 1) Patients with MAS due to AI diseases have a higher elevated liver enzymes compared to HO disease. 2) Patients with MAS due to HO diseases have a greater pancytopenia compared to AI diseases, especially in leukocytes and neutrophils. 3) Patients with MAS due to HO have a higher mortality compared to AI diseases.
Disclosure of Interest None declared