Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, inflammatory and multifactorial disease. The metabolic syndrome (MS) has been described as a risk factor in this disease; adipokines levels have been associated in the pathogenesis of OA, some studies have described this association in patients with late OA, however few information is available about the adipokines behavior in patients with early OA.
Objectives To assess the levels of adipokines and inflammatory cytokines in patients with early OA, with and without MS, compared with a group of healthy people.
Methods We conducted a cross-sectional and observational study. Patients must full-fill ACR Knee primary OA criteria, both genders and the patients should have clinical and radiographic criteria of early knee OA; these patients were divided into two groups: patients with and without MS according with the criteria of the ATP-III and were compared with a group of healthy people as a control group. Through an interview, we collected epidemiological and demographic data. Blood sample was collected in order to evaluate serum adipokines and inflammatory cytokines by ELISA (R & D Systems®). Descriptive and bivariate statistics was used. The analyses was done with 12® STATA software.
Results 100 patients with OA and 41 healthy controls were studied. The mean age was 49.5 in the osteoarthritis group with metabolic syndrome (OAMS), 45 and 47 for groups of osteoarthritis without metabolic syndrome (OAnMS) and healthy controls respectively. There were 82% women in the OA group vs 95% control. The mean BMI was 31.4 OAMS group, 29.3 OAnMS and 26.0 for the control group. In Table 1, we summarize the values of the cytokines tested. The levels of NGF (nerve growth factor) obtained had no significant value in the study groups. Significant results were obtained in patients in the OAMS group, in which the serum adipokines levels were increased: IL-6, IL-8, HGF (hepatocyte growth factor), MCP-1 (macrophage chemoattractant protein-1), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1); adiponectin was found higher in patients with OAnMS, and others adipokines as resisitina, IL-1β and leptin were also increased.
Conclusions We found a significant difference between levels of cytokines and adipokines, these finding supports that in the early stages of OA, the serum adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important pathogenic role. It is likely that in the future, we can use these findings in order to classify the OA in phenotypes according to the serum levels of adipokines. It is noteworthy that our entire population was overweight, including the control group. It could be a possible confounding factor.
Abella V, Scotece M, Conde J, Lόpez V, Lazzaro V, Pino J, Gualillo O (2014). Adipokines, metabolic syndrome and rheumatic diseases. Journal of Immunology Research, 2014, 343746. doi:10.1155/2014/343746
Haseeb A, Haqqi TM (2013). Immunopathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Clinical Immunology.
Kadowaki T, Yamauchi T (2005). Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors. Endocrine Reviews. doi:10.1210/er.2005-0005
Kaur J (2014). A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiology Research and Practice, 2014, 943162. doi:10.1155/2014/943162
Disclosure of Interest None declared