Background Immunological pathways and predisposing genetic factors common to chronic periodontitis (CP) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been described. Studies evaluating clinical, laboratory and therapeutics associations between CP and SLE yielded conflicting results1.
Objectives To compare the frequency and severity of CP in SLE patients with subjects without rheumatic diseases and to evaluate the clinical, laboratory and therapeutic associations between SLE and CP.
Methods Seventy-five SLE adult patients were compared to 75 subjects without rheumatic diseases (control group), matched for age, educational level and income. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI 2K) measured SLE activity. Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SDI) evaluated SLE associated damage. Periodontal evaluation included measurement of probing depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. CP was diagnosed and classified according to Eke e Page2.
Results Fifth-one (68%) SLE patients and 42 (56%) subjects in the control group had CP (p=0.13). Considering the 93 subjects with CP, SLE patients were younger than control group individuals (40.7±9.8 versus 46.14±12.5 years, p=0.02). Periodontal parameters and the severity of CP were similar in both groups. SLE patients with CP were older, had a lower educational level, longer SLE duration and greater prednisone cumulative dosage than SLE patients without CP. Probing depth and clinical attachment loss correlated to age, educational level, SLE duration and prednisone cumulative dosage. Clinical attachment loss also associated to SDI. CP was not associated to disease activity or therapeutics in SLE patients.
Conclusions The frequency and severity of CP in SLE patients were similar to control group, however CP occurred earlier in SLE patients. The DP was associated with variables related to risk of damage in SLE patients.
Gonzales TS, Coleman GC. Periodontal manifestations of collagen vascular disorders. Periodontol 2000 1999; 21: 94-105.
Eke PI, Page RC, Wei L, Thornton-Evans G, Genco RJ. Update of the case definitions for population-based surveillance of periodontitis.J Periodontol 2012:83(12):1449-54.
Disclosure of Interest None declared