Background The leading cause of disability requiring support is cardiovascular disease, followed by dementia/cognitive impairment, senility, osteoarthritis (OA), and fall/osteoporotic fracture in Japan. However, no study has clarified the interactions between diseases causing disability.
Objectives To assess the associations among diseases causing disability requiring support, including (i) musculoskeletal diseases (knee OA [KOA], lumbar spondylosis [LS], and osteoporosis [OP]); (ii) metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, including overweight (OW), hypertension (HT), dyslipidaemia (DL), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); and (iii) mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Methods Among 1,690 participants (596 men, 1,094 women) at the baseline, 1,384 individuals (81.9%; 466 men, 918 women) repeated the first follow-up in 2008 and completed blood, mini-mental state, and radiographic examinations, and measurement of bone mineral density. Logistic regression analysis was performed using occurrence or non-occurrence of the above-mentioned risk factors as the objective variable, after adjusting for confounders and presence or absence of the above-mentioned risk factors as explanatory variables.
Results Risk of KOA occurrence increased significantly by presence of HT, IGT, and MCI (P=0.018, 0.042, and 0.043, respectively). Occurrence of OP of the femoral neck was inversely associated with OW (P=0.007). OW was influenced significantly by presence of KOA and MCI (P=0.001 for both). Risk of HT occurrence increased by presence of KOA and OW (P=0.030 and 0.021, respectively). IGT occurrence was influenced significantly by presence of OW (P=0.009). In contrast, occurrence of LS or DL was not influenced by factors of metabolic syndrome or musculoskeletal diseases. In addition, occurrence of MCI was not influenced by any other factor.
Conclusions Presence of HT, IGT, and MCI significantly increased the risk of occurrence of KOA, and presence of KOA increased the risk of occurrence of HT and OW. Presence of OW decreased the risk of occurrence of OP. Diseases causing disability were clarified to be associated with each other.
Disclosure of Interest None declared