Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of a plethora of autoantibodies and immune complex formation. Virtually every system and organ can be affected by SLE. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and estimate the associated risk factors for CVD.
Methods Patients with CVD were identified on the basis of medical record documentation. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors of CVD. Of the 256 patients with SLE, 57 had CVD. The demographic data and the clinical data including SLE duration, therapeutic regimen, renal pathological data, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), and associated biochemical parameters were analyzed. Cardiovascular ultrasound was used for detecting and analyzing the cardiovascular structural and functional abnormalities.
Results Fifty-seven cases of CVD were found in the 256 SLE cases (22,27%). After age stratification, CVD showing a tendency to increase with age (P<0,005). The prevalence of CVD differed significantly between patients with and those without lupus nephritis (P<0,005). Among the 57 patients with CVD, 35,09% (22/57) had left ventricular hypertrophy, 31,58% (19/57) had congestive heart failure, 15,79% (9/57) had stroke, 7,01% (4/57) had angina pectoris, and 5,26% (3/57) had peripheral CVD. Compared to those without CVD, patients with CVD had a longer SLE duration (P<0,005), a longer time of steroids treatment (P<0,05), a higher blood pressure (P<0,0001), a lower eGFR (P<0,001), and a lower concentration of HDL (P<0,005). Logistic regression analysis showed that SBP, eGFR, HDL, SLE duration, SLEDAI index, serum C3 and hs-CRP were the risk factors for CVD in SLE patients (P<0,05).
Conclusions SLE is associated with a high risk of CVD which increases with age, and SLE patients with lupus nephritis have an even higher risk for CVD. SBP, eGFR, HDL, SLE duration, SLEDAI index, serum C3 and hs-CRP are the risk factors for CVD in SLE patients.
Disclosure of Interest : None declared