Background Ocular complications of Behçet’s disease are considered one of the major criteria upon which the diagnosis is based.
Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis of ocular Behçet’s disease.
Methods This retrospective study concerned 81 cases of Behçet’s disease followed by internal diseases department. An ophtalmologic examination was practiced in all cases including visual acuity, fluorescein angiography and use of slit lamp biomicroscopy.
Results Ocular manifestations was observed in 23 patients (28%). There were 21 men and 2 women. The mean age at onset was 26,7 years. Ocular involvment was the first manifestation of Behçet’s disease in 11 cases (48%) but the mean Behçet’s disease duration before ocular manifestations onset was 4 years and 3 months. The most common ocular manifestation was panuveitis noted in 10 cases, followed by anterior uveitis in 2 cases (associated with hypopyon in 1 case) and retinal vasculitis in 17 cases (74%). Before treatment, ocular complications were observed in 30% of patients dominated by catarct in 3 cases, retinal atrophy in 2 cases and ocular hypertension in 2 other cases. All patients were treated with oral corticoids. An initial high dose intravenous corticosteroid were indicated in 82%, immunosuppressive drugs in 52% (Cyclophosphamide in 11 cases, Ciclosporine in 6 cases and Azathioprine in 1 case) and biotherapy in 21% of cases (Infliximab and Rituximab). A decline in the ocular involvment of Behçet’s disease was observed after a mean duration of 50,63 months. The incidence rate of ocular inflammatory attack was 1,5 per year and one case of death occured two months after the diagnosis. However, 16 affected eyes had an improvement of visual acuity with a mean of 5/10.
Conclusions The ocular manifestations of Behçet’s disease are one of the major criteria of both diagnosis and prognosis. It usually requires systemic medications including corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs.
Disclosure of Interest None Declared