Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases like lupus. Trace elements (TEs) including selenium, zinc and copper are components of diverse fundamental enzymes in the oxidative pathways, which play a crucial role in the prevention of cellular oxidative stress induced by superoxides and free radicals(1-3).
Objectives This study evaluated the difference between serum values of TEs in lupus with healthy individuals and the correlation between serum values of TEs and disease activity.
Methods Up to 223 volunteers including 123 lupus patients (p) and 100 age and sex-matched healthy controls (c) were consecutively recruited. Disease activity was measured by SLEDAI2K. Albumin, ceruloplasmin, selenium, copper and zinc were measured by specified methods. Correlation between SLEDAI2K and mentioned TEs in addition to differences between serum values of TEs in patients and controls were calculated by SPSS-11 software.
Results This study projected that serum values of zinc (p=0.001) [p:700.6±135.9 vs c: 860±4 µg/ L], albumin [p:4.35(3.5-4.9)g/lvs c:4.8(3.5-4.9)] (p=0.001), selenium (p=0.001) (p:98.9±18.4 vs c:124±21.9 µg/L) and zinc to copper ratio [p:0.74(0.65-0.87) vs c:0.97(0.79-0.87)] (p=0.001) were significantly lower in patients compared with healthy controls. It was not any statistical difference between serum values of ceruloplasmin (p:401.1±184.2 vs c:369±116mg/dl) (p=0.1) and cupper (p:935.6±218 vs c:911.0±240.4 µg/L) (p=0.4) between those groups. Patients divided into two groups according to SLEDAI2K (SLEDAI≤4 & SLEDAI>4). Only Albumin serum levels were significantly lower in active disease group (p=0.001). Serum albumin and SLEDAI showed a negative correlation (p=0.001, rs=-0.4). A negative correlation was found between SLEDAI and copper serum values (p=0.038, rs=-0.2) too.
Conclusions This study showed that zinc, selenium, albumin, and zinc to copper ratio are lower in lupus patients than healthy controls. A negative correlation between serum levels of copper, and SLEDAI may be an indicator of the impressive role of the TEs’ imbalance in disease activity. In brief, one can assume that serum values of trace elements may correlate with development or disease activity in lupus.
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Acknowledgements Mashhad University of Medical Sciences is appreciated for financially supporting this research.
Disclosure of Interest M. Sahebari Grant/research support from: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences research council financially supported this research, M. Abrisahami Grant/research support from: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences research council financially supported this research, S. Z. Mirfeizi Grant/research support from: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences research council financially supported this research, Z. Rezaieyazdi Grant/research support from: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences research council financially supported this research