Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a 50-fold than general population. Traditional risk factors, such as, cigarette smoking and dyslipidemia, are known but they cannot fully account for the increased risk. Instead, non-traditional risk factors, related to disease are also contributing. Varied results have been reported on the association between coffee drinking and CVD in the general population, with controversial results. Coffee consumption has not been evaluated systematically in SLE patients with CVD.
Objectives We aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for CVD in a Latin American population with SLE.
Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which consecutive patients with SLE (ACR 1997 update) seen on an outpatient basis were assessed for CVD including arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, cerebrovascular disease and thrombosis. Factors associated with its occurrence were examined by bivariate and multivariate regression analyses.
Results Out of a total of 310 patients, 113 (36.5%) presented with CVD. The most frequent condition was hypertension (69%). Dyslipidemia (28% vs. 12%), ever smoking (51% vs. 37%), coffee consumption (70.5% vs. 55.2%) and pleural effusion (32% vs. 19%) were positively associated with CVD (Table). Logistic regression analyses disclosed an independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette smoking on CVD regardless of gender and duration of disease.
Conclusions A high rate of CVD was observed in our patient population. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed to facilitate the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as to the tight control of dyslipidemia.
Magder LS, Petri M. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(8):708-19
Zhang Z, et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(6):1212-9
Di Castelnuovo A, et al. Eur J Intern Med. 2012;23(1):15-25
Kahlenberg JM, Kaplan MJ.Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13(1):203
Disclosure of Interest None Declared