Background After menopause the risk of osteoporosis increases significantly caused by subsequent bone loss that can be modified by environmental factors, such as properly balanced diet and physical activity.
Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dietary and lifestyle factors that impact bone health in the group postmenopausal women (without diagnosed osteopenia or osteoporosis)
Methods Anthropometric data were collected from 509 postmenopausal women that were characterised by different values of BMI: 133 had proper body mass (BMI < 25 kg/m2; B1), 111 were overweight (BMI 25,0-29,9 kg/m2; B2) and 265 obese (BMI>30 kg/m2; B3). Body composition were measured by bioimpedance method (BODYSTAT 1500 device). Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) was used to characterised different body fat distributions (visceral and gynoidal). Nutritional data were collected using the seven-days 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire. The differences between groups with different values of BMI and WHR were estimated using ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis’s and U-Manna-Whitney’s test.
Results The average age of postmenopausal women was about 60 years. Low physical activity of women was assumed (only 11% of them exercised regularly). The waist circumference increased with the value of BMI, so overweight and obese women were characterised by visceral deposition of fat tissue. The energy value of analysed groups were similar and achieved nearly 2000 kcal, however the daily food rations were improperly balanced. An amount of protein was higher than 15% of energy intake and increased with the value of BMI. Consumption of animal protein was nearly twice bigger than plant one. Fat intake exceeded 33% of energy value in all analysed groups. In consequence the carbohydrates intake were low and did not exceeded 52%. Sodium intake range from 2,15g (B1) to 2,33g (B2) and potassium consumption vary from 3,501g (B1) to 3,641g (B2). Calcium intake was low and decreased with the value of BMI (B1 738mg to B3 691mg) and was associated with high supply of phosphorus (about 1300 mg). In consequence Ca/P ratio was low (<0.56). Magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese intakes were proper however the amount of vitamins that may influence on bone health (such as vitamin A, B6 and C) did not achieved recommended level. High dietary cholesterol intake and low dietary fiber consumption may increased the risk of co-obesity associated diseases that strain the bones. Women with abdominal fat deposition were characterised by higher value of fat tissue content and lower intake of plant protein, calcium, magnesium zinc, manganese and vitamin A (p<0.05).
Conclusions Daily food rations of postmenopausal women were improperly balanced and were characterised by protein and fat overnutrition. High phosphorus and sodium intake as well as low calcium, potassium, vitamin A, B6 and C consumption are the risk factors that may increase osteoporosis development in postmenopausal age. Visceral fat deposition was associated with lower consumption of beneficial dietary components such as plant protein, calcium, magnesium zinc, manganese and vitamin A. It is necessary to modify nutritional habits to prevent osteoporosis development.
Disclosure of Interest None Declared