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Anticarbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies are present in sera of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients
  1. P C E Hissink Muller1,
  2. J Anink2,
  3. J Shi3,
  4. E W N Levarht3,
  5. T H C M Reinards1,
  6. M H Otten2,
  7. M J D van Tol1,
  8. C M Jol-van der Zijde1,
  9. D M C Brinkman1,
  10. C F Allaart3,
  11. E P Hoppenreijs4,
  12. Y Koopman-Keemink5,
  13. S S M Kamphuis2,
  14. K Dolman6,
  15. J M van den Berg7,
  16. M A J van Rossum7,
  17. L W A van Suijlekom-Smit2,
  18. M W Schilham1,
  19. T W J Huizinga3,
  20. R E M Toes3,
  21. R ten Cate1,
  22. L A Trouw3
  1. 1 Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
  2. 2 Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Rheumatology, Sophia Children's Hospital Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  3. 3 Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
  4. 4 Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Rheumatology, St Maartenskliniek and Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  5. 5 Department of Pediatrics, Hagaziekenhuis Juliana Children's Hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands
  6. 6 Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Rheumatology, St Lucas Andreas Hospital and Reade Location Jan van Breemen, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  7. 7 Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Rheumatology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr L A Trouw, Department of Rheumatology, C1-R, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), PO Box 9600, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands; l.a.trouw{at}lumc.nl PCEHM, JA and JS contributed equally

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In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients there is a lack of markers that predict severe disease. Although anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) have contributed substantially to the understanding of rheumatoid arthritis (RA),1 their detection in JIA has not been equally useful as incidence rates in JIA patients are low2 and merely confined to the polyarticular immunoglobulin (Ig)M-rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive category resembling RA. Recently, anticarbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies were detected in 45% of RA patients and importantly also in 16%–20% ACPA-negative patients.3–5 Within the ACPA-negative patients, anti-CarP antibodies were associated with more severe radiographic progression.3 Since most JIA patients are ACPA-negative we investigated whether anti-CarP antibodies are present in the sera of JIA patients and how they are related to ACPA and IgM-RF.

JIA patients from three Dutch sources were included: the BeSt for Kids trial (NTR 1574, a treatment strategy study) (n=33), a previously described cohort6 (n=48) and the Arthritis and Biologicals in Children (ABC) register7 (n=153). Healthy controls (n=107) (mean age/range 11/(2–20)) are stem-cell …

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