Background Cigarette smoking is a well-established environmental risk factor related to the development of multiple autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis, Graves’ hyperthyroidism, and primary biliary cirrhosis, among others. Furthermore, smoking habit has been associated with several autoimmune phenomenons.
Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between smoking habit, presence of auto antibodies and rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis in an early arthritis cohort.
Methods Consecutive outpatients attending to the Early Arthritis Clinic were evaluated and included in the study at first visit if they had at least 1 or more swollen joints and less than two years of duration. Social, demographics, familiar, hereditary, and clinical data were recollected. DAS28, HAQ, RADAI, RAQoL, general biochemistry, RF, anti CCP2 by ELISA and others immunologic studies that the physician considered of importance were determined. At first visit and every year X-rays of hands and feet were performed and working characteristics and pharmaco-economic data were recollected. Specific information on smoking included smoking status (current smokers or ex-smokers/non smokers), smoking duration and average numbers of cigarettes smoked per day measured by number of pack years = (number of cigarettes smoked per day × number of years smoked)/20.
Statistical Analysis: data from the base were captured by SPSS v 15.0 performing an exploratory analysis of all variables. Categorical variables were compared by Chi2 test o Fisher. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results 155 patients were evaluated from July 2007 until June 2011. 125 (80,6%) were women and 30 (19,35%) men. 72 patients fulfilled criteria for RA (ACR 87 and ACR/EULAR 2010), 15 Undifferentiated Arthritis, 68 others diagnosis. The mean time between the onset of the symptoms and the first visit to the Early Arthritis Clinic was 7,68±6,19 months. Fifty patients presented current or ex smoking habit (32%). 21/72 RA patients were current smokers (29%) (p=0.35). 49 patients were AntiCCP +, 18 of them were current smokers (36%) (p=0.31). 27 patients were ANA +, 8 of them were current smokers (p=0.85) and 64 patients were RF +, 20 were current smokers (p=0.21).
Conclusions We found no influence of smoking in the occurrence of RA or in the production of anti-CCP, RF or ANA antibodies in our cohort of Argentinian patients with early arthritis
Effects of Smoking on Disease Activity and Radiographic Progression in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis. Ruiz-Esquide V, Gόmez-Puerta JA, et al. J Rheumatol December 2011 38(12):2536-2539.
Tobacco smoking and autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Harel-Meir M, Sherer Y, Shoenfeld Y. Nature Reviews Rheumatology 3, 707-715 (December 2007).
Does Cigarette Smoking Influence Activity and Severity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients? Results from the ESPOIR Cohort. V. Vesperini, C. Luka, et al.Ann Rheum Dis 2011;70(Suppl3):296
Disclosure of Interest None Declared