Background Hyperuricaemia is a risk factor for gout, diabetes, hypertension, kidney and cardiovascular diseases as well as mortality. Beverages form an important part of diet which may affect serum urate (SUA) levels1-3 but data in Asian populations are scarce4.
Objectives We aimed to evaluate the association of intake of coffee, black and green tea, alcohol, soft drinks and fruit juices with SUA levels in a population-based sample of middle-aged and elderly Singapore Chinese.
Methods The study involved a subcohort of 483 subjects from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, which recruited 63,257 Chinese individuals, aged 45-74 years, between 1993 and 1998. At recruitment, subjects were interviewed in-person on lifestyle factors and medical histories. Usual diet was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Creatinine, SUA, cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA1C and homocysteine were measured from stored blood collected between 1994 and 1996 for this study.
Results Mean age was 58 years and 44% were men. The geometric mean of SUA was 321 μmol/L (range 145-719 μmol/L). SUA increased with increasing consumption of alcoholic beverages or green tea. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), moderate physical activity, cigarette smoking, history of hypertension, consumption of dairy products, plasma concentrations of cholesterol, creatinine, HbA1c, homocysteine and triglycerides, and green tea, SUA levels in alcohol drinkers increased as the intake frequency increased (P for trend = 0.01, β coefficient = 0.035). The greatest increase of SUA was seen for daily drinkers who had 50.3μmol/L SUA higher than non-drinker. This alcohol-SUA association was mainly due to the consumption of beer in this study population. Similarly, increasing frequency of green tea intake from monthly, weekly to daily saw a trend of rise in SUA level after adjustment for alcohol intake and other covariates. The greatest increase of SUA was observed in daily drinkers (increased by 28.7 umol/L) relative to non-drinkers (P for trend = 0.004, β coefficient = 0.022). There was no significant association between consumption of black tea, coffee, fruit juice or soda and SUA levels.
Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, intake of green tea, especially daily frequency, results in increased SUA levels in the middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore while coffee has no effect. Intake of alcohol, particularly daily beer consumption, is positively associated with SUA levels, corroborating findings of other reports.
Choi HK, Curhan G. Beer, liquor, and wine consumption and serum uric acid level: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arthritis Rheum. 2004. 15;51(6):1023-9.
Choi JW et al. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet soft drinks, and serum uric acid level: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arthritis Rheum. 2008. 15;59(1):109-16.
Choi HK, Curhan G. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and serum uric acid level: the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Arthritis Rheum. 2007. 15;57(5):816-21.
Kiyohara C et al. Inverse association between coffee drinking and serum uric acid concentrations in middle-aged Japanese males. Br J Nutr. 1999. 82(2):125-30.
Disclosure of Interest None Declared