The innate immune system has evolved the capacity to detect specific pathogens and to interrogate cell and tissue integrity in order to mount appropriate immune responses. Pathogens are detected by innate immune receptors including NLRs and TLRs. Some NLRs, including NALPs (NLRPs), form molecular machines termed inflammasomes. The recruitment of the adaptor ASC and the enzyme caspase-1 to the inflammasome platform are crucial for its activity that mainly control the proteolytic maturation of a few key inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta and IL-18. The mechanisms that regulate the activation of inflammasomes are poorly understood. Here we will discuss how perturbations of cellular homeostasis including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress trigger the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These findings suggest new mechanistic insights linking stress pathways and inflammatory diseases.
Disclosure of Interest None Declared