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Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) primarily regulates the survival, proliferation and function of macrophages.1 Studies on MRL-Faslpr mice demonstrate that M-CSF plays a pivotal role in kidney injury.2–4 Increased glomerular expression of M-CSF mRNA and protein was also reported in lupus nephritis patients.5 This study was conducted to examine for the first time the serum M-CSF level and its mRNA expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.
The subjects included 21 adult patients with active SLE (SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) ⩾8 or an increase in SLEDAI ⩾3), 11 with inactive …
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