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Update on toll-like receptor-directed therapies for human disease
  1. Kevin Tse,
  2. Anthony A Horner
  1. Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics and The Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Aging, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
  1. Anthony A Horner, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail code 0663, La Jolla, CA 92093-0663, USA; ahorner{at}


Innate responses to microbes are mediated in large part by toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognise a diverse range of molecules produced by viruses, bacteria and fungi. Great effort has been directed towards translating this knowledge into the development of new therapies for a wide spectrum of diseases, including infectious, malignant, autoimmune and allergic diseases. This review will provide a brief update on completed, ongoing and planned clinical trials of TLR ligand-based therapies for the treatment of diseases in humans.

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  • Funding: This work was supported by grant AI61772 from the National Institutes of Health.

  • Competing interests: None declared.

  • Abbreviations:
    cytotoxic T lymphocyte
    monophosphoryl lipid
    pathogen-associated molecular patterns
    pattern recognition receptors
    systemic lupus erythematosus
    toll-like receptors

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