Innate responses to microbes are mediated in large part by toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognise a diverse range of molecules produced by viruses, bacteria and fungi. Great effort has been directed towards translating this knowledge into the development of new therapies for a wide spectrum of diseases, including infectious, malignant, autoimmune and allergic diseases. This review will provide a brief update on completed, ongoing and planned clinical trials of TLR ligand-based therapies for the treatment of diseases in humans.
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Funding: This work was supported by grant AI61772 from the National Institutes of Health.
Competing interests: None declared.
- cytotoxic T lymphocyte
- monophosphoryl lipid
- pathogen-associated molecular patterns
- pattern recognition receptors
- systemic lupus erythematosus
- toll-like receptors
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