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Emerging roles of vasoactive intestinal peptide: a new approach for autoimmune therapy
  1. Elena Gonzalez-Rey1,
  2. Per Anderson2,
  3. Mario Delgado2
  1. 1
    Departamento de Bioquimica Medica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla 41009, Spain
  2. 2
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Granada 18100, Spain
  1. Mario Delgado, Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina, CSIC, Avd. Conocimiento, PT Ciencias de la Salud, Granada 18100, Spain; mdelgado{at}ipb.csic.es

Abstract

Identification of the factors that regulate the immune tolerance and control the appearance of exacerbated inflammatory conditions is crucial for the development of new therapies of autoimmune diseases. Some neuropeptides and hormones have emerged as endogenous agents that participate in the regulation of the processes that ensure self-tolerance. Among them, the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a well-characterised endogenous anti-inflammatory neuropeptide, has shown therapeutic potential for a variety of immune disorders. Here we examine the latest research findings, which indicate that VIP participates in maintaining immune tolerance in two distinct ways: by regulating the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, and by inducing the emergence of regulatory T cells with suppressive activity against autoreactive T cell effectors.

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Footnotes

  • Funding: This work was supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Health, the NIH and Junta de Andalucia.

  • Competing interests: None declared.

  • Abbreviations:
    APCs
    antigen-presenting cells
    DCs
    dendritic cells
    PKA
    protein kinase A
    TLRs
    toll-like receptors
    Treg
    T regulatory
    Tr1
    T regulatory 1
    VIP
    vasoactive intestinal peptide

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