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Joint remodelling in inflammatory disease

Abstract

Bone and the immune system share multiple interactions. The skeleton harbours the bone marrow and provides the niche for development of haematopoietic cells including the immune system. The immune system provides cells as well as molecular signals, which regulate bone homeostasis. Understanding the cellular and molecular regulation of the tight interaction between bone and the immune system is crucial for understanding the changes of skeletal architecture during inflammation. Whereas a short and self-limited activation of the immune system has no clinically meaningful effect on bone, prolonged immune activation as found in chronic inflammatory disease inevitably leads to bone wasting.

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Footnotes

  • Competing interests: None declared.

  • Abbreviations:
    AS
    ankylosing spondylitis
    BMPs
    bone morphogenic proteins
    DKK
    Dickkopf
    MCSF
    macrophage colony-stimulating factor
    OPG
    osteoprotegerin
    PsA
    psoriatic arthritis
    RA
    rheumatoid arthritis
    RANKL
    receptor-antagonist of NF-kB ligand
    Wnt
    wingless proteins

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