The kinetics of the human heart sarcolemmal sheath antibody were studied in children with acute rheumatic fever who had no carditis, children with acute rheumatic fever who had carditis and developed rheumatic heart disease, and in children with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. The children with rheumatic fever and those who developed valvular heart disease were given continuous secondary antistreptococcal prophylaxis. The titre of antibody at onset was significantly higher than that of the controls in children with acute rheumatic fever and carditis and in children with acute poststreptococcal nephritis. The difference in the antibody titre between children with rheumatic fever who had no carditis and controls was not statistically significant. After a mean follow up of three years, however, a high titre was only maintained in children with rheumatic fever who developed valvular heart disease.
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