A neutrophil monolayer system was used to study the effects of uric acid on neutrophil-aggregate interactions important in rheumatoid inflammation. No effect on immunoglobulin G aggregate phagocytosis was seen, but hyperuricaemic levels of uric acid were associated with an enhancement of phagocytosis-induced release of the azurophilic granular enzyme beta-glucuronidase. A trinitrophenyl-coupled mononuclear leucocyte rheumatoid factor plaque-forming assay was utilised to study uric acid effects on polyclonal activation of immunocompetent cells. Low levels of uric acid enhanced and high levels suppressed this system. Hyperuricaemia may enhance some aspects of rheumatoid inflammation, while uric acid may modulate an important component of rheumatoid autoimmunity.