An association between urate gout and chondrocalcinosis has been suggested in several studies, but the situation remains ill-defined because of lack of appropriate controls, small numbers of patients studied, or retrospective investigation. An association has also been claimed between gout and avascular necrosis of the femoral head. 138 patients with gout and 142 non-gouty control subjects were carefully matched for age and x-rays were taken of the knees and pelvis. Chondrocalcinosis of the knees was detected in 8 patients with gout (5.8%), no cases being found in the control group. The difference is significant (P less than 0.025). Deposits were linear or irregular. Six of the 8 patients gave a history of acute synovitis of the knees; fluid had been aspirated in 2 of them, urate crystals being found in one and no crystals in the other. Six of 8 patients showed evidence of chondrocalcinosis elsewhere. No association was apparent between chondrocalcinosis and the presence of tophaceous deposits or renal impairment, though the duration of gout appeared to be longer in the patients with chondrocalcinosis than in the other gout patients and osteoarthrosis of the knees commoner. There was no evidence of other metabolic disorders commonly associated with chondrocalcinosis. No cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head were found.